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The risks and complications in vitrectomy

What are the risks and complications in vitrectomy?

As with any surgery, vitrectomy has risks, but its disadvantages are much less than its advantages. Some of the possible complications include:

• Infection

• Bleeding

• Retinal detachment

• Visual impairment

• increased pressure in the eye

• Vitrectomy may speed upthe formationof cataract.

Although rarely, shortly after surgery, there is a cataract progression, but frequently agedpatients’ cataract will develop in a few months.

How much will your visionbe improved?

The strength of your vision after vitrectomy surgery depends on several variables, especially in cases where the before undergoing vitrectomy ocular disease may cause permanent damage to the retina. Considering your eye doctor will explain about the probability of visual improvement.

The strength of your vision depends on many factors,especially in cases where the preoperative ocular disease hascaused permanent damages to the retina. Considering your condition, your doctorwillexplainabout the probability of visual improvement. 

RETINAL LASER SURGERY:

What is laser retina?

A laser is an instrument that produces a focused, high-intensity beam of light energy. Laser Retinais designed to focus onto the retina, leaving the surrounding tissues untouched.In many people, laser can maintain the remaining vision and prevent its loss.

 

How is retinal Laser surgery performed?

Retinal laser surgery is an outpatient procedure. Eye drops will be given to dilate the pupil and numb the eye. You are seated in a chair, similar to the one used for regular eye examinations. Treatment is usually painless and takes less than 30 minutes to complete, and you can go home immediately following surgery.

What is retinal laser application?

Note: in retinal diseases almost always the eye appear normal, even when there is bleeding or fluid leakagein the posterior eye. Your vision may also be normal for a while, in spite of sight-threatening risks. The only way the doctor can diagnose the presence or absence of sight-threatening risks is a complete fundus examination with dilated pupils. Laser retina is applied in:

  • Diabetic Retinopathy:

 Diabetes is a disease that disrupts blood flow throughout the body. In this disease, blood vessels may leak fluid and cause swelling (edema). Diabetic patients’ vision change when this edema occurs in the central visual area of ​​the retina (macula). Laser retina can block the pores, from which fluid leaks, and prevent further vision loss. Some diabetic patients will have new retinal blood vessels grow to replacethe blockedones. These new vessels are histologically abnormal and don’t function properly.They even can cause blindness from bleeding. Laser can destroy these new abnormal blood vessels and prevents blindness caused by vascular bleeding.

  • Retinal Vein Occlusion:

The tiny blood vessels that drain blood from the retina (retinal veins) can sometimes become blocked as part of the aging process. This is more common in patients with diabetes or high blood pressure. A retinal vein occlusion can cause the retina to swell with fluid and blood, blurring central and peripheral vision. Other times, new blood vessels may grow and cause pain with very high pressure inside the eye (Neovascular Glaucoma). Laser treatment can help reduce this swelling or cause the new blood vessels to disappear.

  • Age-related Macular Degeneration:

 In some people the aging brings along some changes in the macula. In many cases these changesaredryand are not treatable with laser. The more severe type called wet can cause macular edema due to blood or fluid leakage. Wet macular degeneration type is usually painless and causes a blurred vision.

  • Retinal Detachment and Holes:

Retinal holes may occur as a result of aging, high myopia, ocular trauma or even spontaneously, without any underlying factor.

  • Central Serous Chorioretinopathy:

In this disease.one or more blisters appear on macula. They may cause central blurriness, distortion, abnormal color vision, blind spots, temporaryhyperopia, or central scotoma. Although most patients recover without any specific action, laser photocoagulation is sometimes necessary in some cases

  • Ocular tumors:

Some benign tumors of the eyecause fluid leakage and edema (swelling) of the retina. The laser can also destroy these tumors and allow the swelling to go away.

What is required to do before Laser retina?

There are no special preparations before eye laser treatment. You should eat normally and take your regularly prescribed medications before surgery.

What are the restrictions and side effects after laser?

There are virtually no restrictions following retinal laser surgery, and you should be able to resume your normal daily activities. Most patients notice no vision changes following their laser surgery. Althoughsome patients complain about blurring and decreased night vision or near vision for several months after surgery, most people have no new vision complication. Depending on the condition being treated, some may notice a permanent blind spot or decrease in peripheral and night vision.

Will I need more than one laser treatment?

It will usually take several weeks to months before we can tell whether the laser surgery has been successful or not. Some patients may need more than one treatment to control their eye problem and prevent further loss of vision,particularly in the case of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

What are the different types of retinal laser?

Different types of retinal laser include:

Panretinal Photocoagulation (PRP):

This type of laser, also called ScatterPhotocoagulation, is used in patients who suffer from Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy-growing o abnormal blood vessels are inside the eye.The treatment consists of creating burns in the retina (at 360 degreesretinal), except in the macula (the area of central vision). Scientists believe that by applying Laser to a large portion of retina not only abnormal inefficient vessels but also the factors of generating new blood vessels are destroyed.Usually this type of laser,because of creating discomfort and pain, is performed in 2 to 3 sessions. Although PRP is necessary to control neovascularization, it can lead to loss of some portions of peripheral vision or disrupt your night vision or cause swelling of the retina. On the other hand, insufficienttreatment may lead to continued growth of new abnormal blood vessels, which can ultimately lead to loss of vision due to vitreous hemorrhage or retinal detachment.It is necessary to note that in diabetic patients, sometimes Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy causes kidney and vascularproblems.

Focal Grid Laser:

This type of laser is usually used to treat retinal edema (swelling) in patients who suffer from Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.The first stages of Diabetic Retinopathy come with damage to the retinal blood vessels andretinal hemorrhages. The most common cause of vision loss inDiabetic Retinopathyis the growing of abnormal vessels which leak fluid and protein into the retina. Retinal Subspecialist ophthalmologists can detect retinal thickness increases and inflation by looking into the eye through a slit lamp. In this case the ideal therapy is applying laser to the thickened parts of the retina. This treatment seldom improves vision and its purpose is to preserve the remaining vision.Therefore, once more the importance of routine eye examinations for diabetic patients is determined, when the laser can be performed in the early stages andwithout loss of vision.

Who performs retinal Laser surgery?

In Noor Eye Hospital,this laser therapy is done by retinal Subspecialist ophthalmologists.

Is retinal laser the same laser Excimer which is used in refractive errors treatment?

No Laser Excimer is a type of laserproduced by other devices such as Visx and is used in some refractive surgeries such as LASIK, PRK or LASEK.